9th Article | Volume 01 | Issue 04

A Sentiment Analysis on the Mandatory ROTC in Senior High School       

Ria Bianca R. Caangay, PhD

College Faculty, Ateneo de Davao University

Davao City, Philippines

Danilo G. Baradillo, PhD

Program Chair, University of the Immaculate Conception

Davao City, Philippines                                                                    

Published: November 2023

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17613/2me5-f972.



This study uncovered the sentiments of Filipino parents on the mandatory Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) in senior high school. The study employed the qualitative approach using text mining. The data used in this study were the selected 100 Facebook comments of parents on the online news articles posted on Facebook, headlining the mandatory ROTC in senior high school. The orange software was used to determine the most frequently used words in parents' sentiments on the mandatory ROTC in old high school and to analyze the parents’ sentiments. Meanwhile, thematic analysis was utilized to formulate the definitions of parents' sentiments on the issue. The study revealed that the most frequently used words found on the sentiments of parents on the mandatory ROTC in senior high school as generated by Word Cloud in Orange software are ROTC, train, discipline, yes, mandatory, military, good, student, youth, country, and need. The study further revealed that Filipino parents believed that ROTC inculcates values, trains students to prepare for war, and is suitable for the country. They also thought that the Filipino youth needs discipline nowadays, that a highly qualified official should handle ROTC, and that it should be mandatory for all, except for the physically incapable. It was concluded that most Filipino parents favored implementing the compulsory ROTC in senior high school as the benefits that students and the country would derive outweigh the issues or oppositions against the proposed program

Keywords: sentiment analysis, mandatory ROTC, senior high school, text mining, Philippines

How to cite:

Caangay, R. B. & Baradillo, D. (2023). A Sentiment Analysis on the Mandatory ROTC in Senior High School. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Educational Research and Innovation. 1(4), 122-136. https://doi.org/10.17613/2me5-f972.


Bajo, A.F. (2022). Sara hopes mandatory ROTC will be among the priority legislations under Marcos. GMA 

Boleda, G. (2020). Distributional Semantics and Linguistic Theory. Annual Review of Linguistics, 6, 213–34. DOI: 10.1146/annual-linguistics-011619-030303

Business Mirror (2019). ROTC revival to benefit students, defense, and police officials. https://businessmirror.com.ph/2019/09/01/rotc-revival-to-benefit-students-nation-defense-police-officials/

Cabral, K.M. (2022). Why is ROTC not mandatory anymore? A look into the brutal history.Scout. https://www.scoutmag.ph/71535/rotc-history-mark-welson-chua/

Catindig, A.L. (2022). Filipino youth became disrespectful without GMRC. NewsCore. https://newscorebulacan.net/filipino-youth-became-disrespectful-without-gmrc/

Caufield, J. (2019). How to do thematic analysis | A step-by-step guide & examples. Scribbr.https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/thematic-analysis/#step-5-defining-and-naming-themes

Chua, D. & Gato, R.C. (2022). Explainer: The revival of mandatory ROTC. Explained PH. https://www.explained.ph/2022/02/explainer-revival-of-mandatory-rotc.html

Cudis, C. (2019). Why mandatory ROTC is needed again. Philippine News Agency. https://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/1061593

De Asis, J. (2019). Aurora supports the revival of mandatory ROTC. Philippine News Agency. https://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/1087342

De La Salle University (2022). Reserve Officers’ Training Corps overview. De La Salle University. https://www.dlsu.edu.ph/offices/osa-reference/rotc/

Dela Rosa (2022). Dela Rosa seeks to revive the death penalty and mandatory ROTC. ABS CBN News. https://news.abs-cbn.com/news/07/18/22/dela-rosa-seeks-to-revive-death-penalty-mandatory-rotc

DePaolo, C. & Wilkinson, K. (2014). Get Your head into the clouds: Using word clouds for analyzing qualitative assessment data. Researchgate. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/272016699_Get_Your_Head_into_the_Clouds_Using_Word_Clouds_for_Analyzing_Qualitative_Assessment_Data

Elran, M. & Sheffer, G. (2017). Military service in Israel: Challenges and ramifications. The Institutes for National Security Studies. https://www.inss.org.il/publication/military-service-in-israel-challenges-and-ramifications/

Espartinez, R. (2022). Dela Rosa will refile his mandatory ROTC bill. Press One. https://pressone.ph/dela-rosa-to-refile-his-mandatory-rotc-bill/

Ferrone, L. & Zanzotto, F.M. (2020). A survey: symbolic, distributed, and distributional representations for natural language processing in the deep learning era. Frontiers. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/frobt.2019.00153/full

Gita-Carlos, R. A. (2019). Proposed mandatory ROTC not a prelude to PH militarization: AFP. Philippine News Agency. https://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/1089067

Gelacio, L.K. (2019). What young people need is self-discipline. Inquirer.https://opinion.inquirer.net/121632/what-young-people-need-is-self-discipline

Gordon, D. (2019). Gordon wants ROTC revived. Senate of the Philippines. http://legacy.senate.gov.ph/press_release/2019/0407_gordon2.as

Guadalquiver, N. (2019).  ROTC inculcates values for dev't of Filipino youth. Philippine News Agency. https://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/1089090

IBM Cloud Foundation. (2020). What is text mining? IBM. https://www.ibm.com/cloud/learn/text-mining#:~:text=Text%20mining%2C%20also%20known%20as,meaningful%20patterns%20and%20new%20insights.

Imlakiyah, I. (2016). An error analysis of students ' writing recounts text at the eighth-grade students of Mts. Annidhomiyah Carbon (Undergraduate thesis, Syekh Nurjati State Islamic Institute Cerebon). https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/147421511.pdf

Khan, M., Durrani, M., Ali, A., Inayat, I. Khalid, S. & Khan, K.H. (2016). Sentiment analysis and the complex natural language. Complex Adaptive Systems Modeling, 4.  https://casmodeling.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s40294-016-0016-9

Legaspi, A. (2019). Bill sponsor Gatchalian says mandatory ROTC will have safeguards vs. abuse corruption. GMA News Online. https://www.gmanetwork.com/news/topstories/nation/695857/bill-sponsor-gatchalian-says-mandatory-rotc-will-have-safeguards-vs-abuse-corruption/story

Lina, J. (2017).  ROTC is good for the Filipino youth. Pressreader. https://www.pressreader.com/philippines/manila-bulletin/20170214/281779923877220

Linguamatics. (2020). What is text mining, text analytics, and natural language processing? https://www.linguamatics.com/what-text-mining-text-analytics-and-natural-language-processing

Lopez, V. (2019). Duterte certifies mandatory ROTC bill as urgent. GMA News Onlinehttps://www.gmanetwork.com/news/topstories/nation/696510/duterte-certifies-mandatory-rotc-bill-as-urgent/story

Manahan, J. (2022). DND admits challenges in proposed mandatory military service. ABS CBN News. https://news.abs-cbn.com/news/01/20/22/mandatory-military-service-dnd-admits-huge-hurdle

Marcelo, E. (2022). Mandatory military service? Sara wants ‘patriotic’ youth. OneNews.https://www.onenews.ph/articles/mandatory-military-service-sara-wants-patriotic-youth

Marquez, C. (2018). Gatchalian asks Congress to ‘strongly support’ mandatory ROTC. Inquirer. https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/1056645/gatchalian-asks-congress-to-strongly-support-mandatory-rotc#ixzz7ZPgrKCZi

Mateo, J. (2022). Sara hopes for mandatory ROTC In the legislative agenda. OneNews. https://www.onenews.ph/articles/sara-hopes-for-mandatory-rotc-in-legislative-agenda

Mercado, N.A. (2022). Atienza says no to mandatory military training: It’s a ‘step in the wrong direction.’ Inquirer. https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/1542945/atienza-says-no-to-mandatory-military-training-its-a-step-in-the-wrong-direction#ixzz7YzusPILF

Nassaji, H. (2015). Qualitative and descriptive research: data type versus data analysis. Language Teaching Research, 19(2), 129-132. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1362168815572747

Nepomuceno, P. (2019). There is nothing illegal with mandatory ROTC for senior high. Philippine News Agency. https://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/1071248

Nepomuceno, P. (2022). Mandatory military service to help build strong PH: AFP. Philippine News Agency. https://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/1165938

Palicte, C. (2022). Pushing for ROTC has nothing to do with the DepEd position: Sara. Philippine News Agency. https://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/1174558

Parrocha, A. (2019). DepEd suggests ‘ROTC Instructors Academy’ as a safeguard vs. abuse. Philippine News Agency. https://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/1070523

Pitts, L. (2013). Distributional hypothesis: Words for human being and their Estonian Collocates. TRAMES, 17 (67/62),141–158. https://kirj.ee/public/trames_pdf/2013/issue_2/Trames-2013-2-141-158.pdf

Robertson, J. (2018). Debating South Korea’s
mandatory military service. The Interpreter. https://www.lowyinstitute.org/the-interpreter/debating-southkorea-s-mandatory-military-service

Roxas, P.A. (2019). Majority of Filipinos back ROTC revival — Gatchalian. Inquirer. https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/1087039/majority-of-filipinos-back-rotc-revival-gatchalian#ixzz7ZPgLnNFt

Romero, A.M. (2019). Junk proposed mandatory ROTC. Manila Standard. https://manilastandard.net/opinion/columns/everyman/311834/junk-proposed-mandatory-rotc.html

Tiwari, A. (2021). These 15 countries have compulsory military service. India Times. https://www.indiatimes.com/trending/social-relevance/countries-with-compulsory-military-service-554340.html

Salanga, I. (2019). ‘ROTC inculcates values for Filipino youth’. Panay News https://www.panaynews.net/rotc-inculcates-values-for-filipino-youth/

Scherer, K., Schorr, A. & Johnstone, T. (2001). Appraisal processes in emotion: Theory, methods, research (Series in Affective Science) 1st Edition. Oxford University Press. https://www.amazon.com/Appraisal-Processes-Emotion-Research-Affective/dp/0195130073

Viray, P. L.  (2018). Why ROTC is no longer mandatory. Philstar Global. https://www.philstar.com/headlines/2018/11/26/1871897/why-rotc-no-longer-mandatory.