On the premise that making research freely accessible to the public promotes a wider global flow of information, this publication gives instant open access to its material.

This is an open-access journal, which implies that all information is freely accessible to consumers or institutions at no cost. Users may read, download, copy, distribute, print, search for, or link to full-text articles in this journal without seeking permission from the publisher or author. This is consistent with the Budapest Open Access Initiative. 

Budapest Open Access Initiative

An ancient custom and modern technology have combined to make an extraordinary public benefit conceivable. The tradition is that scientists and academics are eager to publish the results of their study in scholarly publications for free for the sake of inquiry and knowledge. The internet is a new technology. The public benefit they enable is the global electronic dissemination of peer-reviewed journal material, as well as full and unlimited access to it by all scientists, academics, instructors, students, and other inquiring minds. Removing access obstacles to this literature will speed research, enhance education, make this literature as valuable as it can be, and set the groundwork for uniting humankind in a single intellectual discussion and quest for knowledge.

This kind of free and unrestricted online availability, which we shall refer to as open access, has so far been confined to tiny sections of the journal literature for a variety of reasons. Even in these limited collections, however, numerous initiatives have demonstrated that open access is economically feasible, that it gives readers extraordinary power to find and use relevant literature, and that it provides authors and their works with vast and measurable new visibility, readership, and impact. To ensure that these advantages are available to everyone, we urge all interested institutions and people to help open up access to the remainder of this material and eliminate any hurdles, particularly pricing restrictions. The more people who contribute to our cause, the sooner we will all benefit from open access.

The literature that should be publicly available online is that which researchers provide to the world for free. This category mostly comprises their peer-reviewed journal publications, but it also includes any unreviewed preprints that they may desire to post online for discussion or to notify peers of significant research discoveries. There are several levels and types of broader and easier access to this material. By "open access," we mean free availability on the public internet, allowing any user to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inherent in gaining access to the internet itself. The sole restriction on reproduction and distribution, and the only purpose for copyright in this area, should be to provide writers with control over the integrity of their work, as well as the right to be properly recognized and credited.

While peer-reviewed journal content should be freely available online to readers, it is not free to generate. Experiments reveal, however, that the total costs of giving open access to this material are far cheaper than the costs of conventional techniques of distribution. With the possibility to save money while also expanding the reach of distribution, professional groups, colleges, libraries, foundations, and others have a strong motivation to embrace open access as a method of promoting their objectives. Achieving open access would need new cost recovery structures and financial mechanisms, but the substantially reduced total cost of transmission provides cause to believe that the aim is possible rather than desirable or utopian.

We propose two alternative ways for achieving free access to scientific journal publications.

1. Self-Archiving: First, researchers need the tools and guidance necessary to deposit their refereed journal articles in open electronic archives, a procedure known as self-archiving. When these archives adhere to the Open Archives Initiative's principles, search engines and other tools may consider them as a single entity. Users do not need to know which archives exist or where they are stored to search and utilize their content.

2. Open-access Journals: Second, researchers need the resources to create a new generation of open-access journals and to assist current journals that choose to make the move to open access. Because journal articles should be broadly shared, these new journals will no longer employ copyright to limit access to and use of the content they publish. Instead, they will employ copyright and other instruments to guarantee that all publications they publish have permanent open access. Because the price is a barrier to access, these new journals will not collect subscription or access fees, instead relying on alternative revenue streams to fund their costs. There are numerous alternative funding sources for this purpose, including foundations and governments that fund research, universities, and laboratories that employ researchers, endowments established by discipline or institution, friends of the cause of open access, profits from the sale of add-ons to basic texts, funds freed up by the demise or cancellation of journals charging traditional subscription or access fees, and even contributions from the researchers themselves. There is no reason to choose one of these solutions over the others for all disciplines or countries, and there is no reason to cease seeking for additional, more innovative ones.

The purpose is to provide open access to peer-reviewed academic publications. This objective may be achieved by self-archiving (I.) and a new generation of open-access journals (II.). They are not only direct and effective tools to this aim, but they are also instantly available to academics and do not need them to wait for changes brought about by markets or laws. While we support the two tactics already mentioned, we also urge additional experimentation with new approaches to migrate from current distribution methods to open access. Flexibility, innovation, and adaptability to local conditions are the greatest strategies to ensure speedy, secure, and long-term success in a variety of environments.